Benjamin Solomon “Ben” Carson, Sr., (born September 18, 1951) is a retired American neurosurgeon. He is credited with pioneering work on the successful separation of conjoined twins joined at the head. In 2008, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush. Carson was a professor of neurosurgery, oncology, plastic surgery, and pediatrics, and he was the director of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. At age 33, he became the youngest major division director in Johns Hopkins history, as director of pediatric neurosurgery. He was also a co-director of the Johns Hopkins Craniofacial Center. Carson believes his hand-eye coordination and three-dimensional reasoning skills made him a gifted surgeon.